Success in Anno 1800, like all good capitalism simulators, is built on the backs of your people. Having the right people for the right jobs is vital, and Artisans are no exception. The third type of citizen in the game, they will open up new possibilities for production and resource generation. They represent the development of a middle class in your society, the educated worker that can perform specialized functions.
How To Get Artisans
The only way to get Artisans is to advance your population from Farmers to Workers and then to Artisans. To do this, you need to be able to meet their Needs. While it is helpful to also meet their Happiness requirements, in this way they pay more taxes. You do not need to do this in order to advance them.
To advance Workers to Artisans, you need to meet all the workers Needs, as shown in the picture above. When you do this, the Workers residence will reach maximum capacity, allowing you to upgrade it to the Artisans residence. To do this, you will need 12 Timber, 2 Bricks, and 2 Steel Beams.
Artisans Needs And Happiness
You should be careful about when you upgrade some of your workers to Artisans because this is where Needs and Happiness start to get a bit more demanding.
Artisans Needs include Sausages, Bread, Soap, School, Canned Food, Sewing Machines, Fur Coats and University. They also have Luxury Needs that include Church, Beer, Variety Theatre, and Rum. Rum can only be produced with resources from the New World, so to keep Artisans as productive as possible, and advance to the next tier, you will need to get an Expedition to the New World underway.
The good thing about Artisans is that, just like the other tiers, the allow you to build the factories and business you need to produce the goods that they need. They also allow you to produce Windows, which you will need to build advanced buildings that perform very important functions, such as the Town Hall.
That should be everything you need to know to get Artisans to move into your wonderful new city.